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Click here to listen [Transcript of a speech delivered at the Mises University. Because there is a scarcity in the world, we can have conflicts regarding these scarce resources. And because conflicts can exist whenever and wherever there exists scarcity, we do need norms to regulate human life.
Norms — the purpose of norms is to avoid conflicts. And in order to avoid conflicts regarding scarce resources, we need rules of exclusive ownership of such scarce resources or, to say exactly the same, we need property rights to determine who is entitled to control what and who is not entitled to control what.
These rules, I have defended in my previous lecture, the rules that Austrians regard as rules capable of doing this, avoiding conflict and, at the same time, being just rules are the following.
One is every person owns himself, his own physical body. He has exclusive control over his own physical body. The second rule refers to, how do we acquire property, the right of exclusive control of scarce resources outside of our body in the external world.
Previously — initially, the outside world is un-owned and we acquire property in objects outside of our body by being the first one to put certain resources to use and, thereby, we become the owner.
This is also sometimes referred to as original appropriation or as homesteading. Rule number three and four are implied in the previous two. He who uses his physical body and those things that he originally appropriates in order to produce something, to transform things into a more valuable state of affairs, thereby, becomes the owner of what he has produced.
Producer owns the product. And finally, we can also acquire property by a voluntary transfer from a previous owner to a later owner. Somebody else should own us sounds absurd. Should the second one be the owner who has done nothing to a resource, instead of the first one?
Again, that sounds absurd. The producer does not own the product, but somebody who has not produced it should own the product? In addition, you also realize that if you would follow these rules, by and large, wealth will be maximized.
And if we follow these rules, then all conflicts can conceivably be avoided. Now the question is, there are, of course, people who just say, so what. Even if we can justify them and show that they are economically beneficial to follow and that all conflicts can be avoided if people were to follow these rules, there will be law breakers.
There will be criminals, evil people as long as mankind exists. What do we do with these people? How do we enforce these rules?
Merely stating them does not mean that people will actually act according to them under all circumstances. There will always be bad people. The classical liberals gave the following answer to the question, how do we enforce these rules. They said this is the sole task of government, the sole task of a state.
Now what do we have to make to this answer of the classical liberals? It includes in this case, also, Ludwig von Mises. Now, whether this answer is right or wrong, that is, whether this is the task of the state and the state will do it efficiently, that depends, of course, on what is the definition of a state.
It is the standard definition of the state. And that is, the state is a territorial monopolist of ultimate decision making or of ultimate arbitration in some territory.
That is, whenever there is a conflict arising, the state is the ultimate arbiter to decide who is right and who is wrong.The Connection between Civilization and Individuals in "Civilization and Its Discontents" by Sigmund Freud - In Civilization and Its Discontents, Sigmund Freud writes primarily to examine the relationship between the individual and society.
What are three similarities and three differences between Indian culture and American culture? Update Cancel. Answer Wiki.
What are three similarities and three differences between Russian culture and American culture? What is the difference between Indian and American culture? Civilization is a general term that refers to a large body of knowledge.
Western Civilization connects the present to the Classical Greeks, and to some the1, year older Egyptian and Babylonian narratives and origins of writing. Culture refers to specific economic and political relationship and time periods. Freedom Essay Examples.
A Comparison of the Relationship Between Freedom and Civilization. words. 2 pages. From Serving to Leading, Frederick Douglass. 1, words. 3 pages. The Government Gives Us Life. A Comparison of Malcolm X and Wilson Class in Their Literary Works. words.
In Civilization and Its Discontents, Sigmund Freud writes primarily to examine the relationship between the individual and society. Through Freud's examination of the relationship, a deeper understanding of the complexity of mental life is realized.
Journals addressing the relationship between science and religion include Theology and Science and Zygon. Eugenie Scott has written that the "science and religion" movement is, overall, composed mainly of theists who have a healthy respect for science and may be beneficial to the public understanding of science.