Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Hydroxide -Lime- There are many chemicals available on the market today that are suitable for use as neutralization chemicals.
Pulp paper Sodium hydroxide is also widely used in pulping of wood for making paper or regenerated fibers. Along with sodium sulfidesodium hydroxide is a key component of the white liquor solution used to separate lignin from cellulose fibers in the kraft process.
It also plays a key role in several later stages of the process of bleaching the brown pulp resulting from the pulping process.
Tissue digestion[ edit ] In a similar fashion, sodium hydroxide is used to digest tissues, as in a process that was used with farm animals at one time.
This process involved placing a carcass into a sealed chamber, then adding a mixture of sodium hydroxide and water which breaks the chemical bonds that keep the flesh intact. This eventually turns the body into a liquid with coffee-like appearance,   and the only solid that remains are bone hulls, which could be crushed between one's fingertips.
Italian serial killer Leonarda Cianciulli used this chemical to turn dead bodies into soap. If a dilute solution is spilled on the skin, burns may result if the area is not washed thoroughly and for several minutes with running water.
Splashes in the eye can be more serious and can lead to blindness. Sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium and water to release hydrogen gas.
The aluminium takes the oxygen atom from sodium hydroxide, which in turn takes the oxygen atom from the water, and releases the two hydrogen atoms, The reaction thus produces hydrogen gas and sodium aluminate. In this reaction, sodium hydroxide acts as an agent to make the solution alkaline, which aluminium can dissolve in.
This reaction can be useful in etching, removing anodizing, or converting a polished surface to a satin-like finish, but without further passivation such as anodizing or alodining the surface may become degraded, either under normal use or in severe atmospheric conditions.
Since the alumina is amphotericit dissolves in the sodium hydroxide, leaving impurities less soluble at high pH such as iron oxides behind in the form of a highly alkaline red mud.
Other amphoteric metals are zinc and lead which dissolve in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions to give sodium zincate and sodium plumbate respectively. Esterification and transesterification reagent[ edit ] Sodium hydroxide is traditionally used in soap making cold process soap, saponification.
For the manufacture of biodieselsodium hydroxide is used as a catalyst for the transesterification of methanol and triglycerides. This only works with anhydrous sodium hydroxide, because combined with water the fat would turn into soapwhich would be tainted with methanol. NaOH is used more often than potassium hydroxide because it is cheaper and a smaller quantity is needed.
Food preparation[ edit ] Food uses of sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetableschocolate and cocoa processing, caramel coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream.
Owing to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often used in place of sodium hydroxide. German pretzels are poached in a boiling sodium carbonate solution or cold sodium hydroxide solution before baking, which contributes to their unique crust.
Lye-water is an essential ingredient in the crust of the traditional baked Chinese moon cakes. Most yellow coloured Chinese noodles are made with lye -water but are commonly mistaken for containing egg. Sodium hydroxide is also the chemical that causes gelling of egg whites in the production of Century eggs.
Some methods of preparing olives involve subjecting them to a lye-based brine. A similar process is also used in the kakanin known as pitsi-pitsi or pichi-pichi except that the mixture uses grated cassava instead of rice flour.
The Norwegian dish known as lutefisk from lutfisk, "lye fish". Bagels are often boiled in a lye solution before baking, contributing to their shiny crust. Hominy is dried maize corn kernels reconstituted by soaking in lye -water.
These expand considerably in size and may be further processed by frying to make corn nuts or by drying and grinding to make grits. Hominy is used to create Masaa popular flour used in Mexican cuisine to make Corn tortillas and tamales.
Nixtamal is similar, but uses calcium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide. Cleaning agent Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an industrial cleaning agent where it is often called "caustic".Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula H 2 O:attheheels.comhloric acid has a distinctive pungent smell.
It is mainly produced as a precursor to vinyl chloride for attheheels.com is classified as strongly acidic and can attack the skin over a wide composition range, since the hydrogen chloride practically dissociates completely in solution.
The reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide is a neutralization reaction. It results in formation of water and associated salts.
HCl + NaOH →NaCl + H2O. Thus an acid and a base, after mixing together, result in neutralization. Sodium hydroxide is a popular strong base used in industry. Around 56% of sodium hydroxide produced is used by industry, 25% of which is used in the paper industry.
Sodium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, pH regulation, and organic synthesis.
Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). Other metal ions (such as Pb 2+, Cu 2+, Al3+ and Zn 2+) will test only weakly acidic (3hydroxide ions (OH -), the substance is considered to be a base.
Analysis of Acid by Titration with Sodium Hydroxide Stephanie Thao Chemistry Laboratory Analysis of acid by titration with sodium hydroxide Ms. Hoang November Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate an example of how to determine the unknown molarity of hydrochloric acid by titration with a base (sodium hydroxide).