History of Apple Inc. Founding and incorporation The birthplace of Apple Computer.
History[ edit ] BySteve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock who had formerly worked at Hewlett Packard designing calculators to create the "shell" for the Apple II — a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The first computers went on sale on June 10,   with a MOS Technology microprocessor running at 1. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, upper-case-only the original character set matches ASCII characters 20h to 5Fh text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator.
Perhaps most significantly, the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries; it was responsible for opening the doors to software marketed at consumers. This arrangement simultaneously eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, and used a software loop to measure the timer.
Similarly, in the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and can thus be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit Apple mode of entry to colors. This also allows for subpixel font rendering since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels.
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The Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM programmable read-only memoryhe Apple mode of entry a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations.
Case design[ edit ] Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs also paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case. The first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases; these had visible bubbles and other lumps in them from the imperfect plastic molding process, which was soon switched to machine molding.
In addition, the initial case design had no vent openings, causing high heat buildup from the PCB and resulting in the plastic softening and sagging.
Apple added vent holes to the case within three months of production; customers with the original case could have them replaced at no charge. The earliest version was known as Revision 0, and the first 6, units shipped used it. Revision 0 Apple IIs powered up in an undefined mode and had garbage on-screen, requiring the user to press Reset.
This was eliminated on the later board revisions. Revision 0 Apple IIs could display only four colors, but Wozniak was later able to generate 16 in low-res mode. Unlike most machines, all ICs on the Apple II PCB were socketed; although this cost more to manufacture and created the possibility of loose chips causing a system malfunction, it was considered preferable to make servicing and replacement of bad chips easier.
Display and graphics[ edit ] Main article: The original NTSC television signal specification was black-and-white. Color was added on later by adding a 3. Color is encoded based on the phase of this signal in relation to a reference color burst signal.
The result is that the position, size, and intensity of a series of pulses define color information. These pulses can translate into pixels on the computer screen, with the possibility of exploiting composite artifact colors.
The Apple II display provides two pixels per subcarrier cycle.
When the color burst reference signal is turned on and the computer attached to a color display, it can display green by showing one alternating pattern of pixels, magenta with an opposite pattern of alternating pixels, and white by placing two pixels next to each other.
Blue and orange are available by tweaking the offset of the pixels by half a pixel-width in relation to the color-burst signal. The high-resolution display offers more colors by compressing more and narrower pixels into each subcarrier cycle.
The coarse, low-resolution graphics display mode works differently, as it can output a pattern of dots per pixel to offer more color options.
These patterns are stored in the character generator ROM and replace the text character bit patterns when the computer is switched to low-res graphics mode. The text mode and low-res graphics mode use the same memory region and the same circuitry is used for both.
Early Apple II games from the to 79 period often ran only in text or low resolution mode to support users with small memory configurations; HGR not being near universally supported by games until Sound[ edit ] Rather than a dedicated sound-synthesis chip, the Apple II has a toggle circuit that can only emit a click through a built-in speaker or a line out jack; all other sounds including two- three- and, eventually, four-voice music and playback of audio samples and speech synthesis are generated entirely by software that clicked the speaker at just the right times.
Similar techniques are used for cassette storage: Routines in the ROM encode and decode data in frequency-shift keying for the cassette. Written by Wozniak, the interpreter enabled users to write software applications without needing to purchase additional development utilities.
Written with game programmers and hobbyists in mind, the language only supported the encoding of numbers in bit integer format. This feature enabled hackers to write and debug machine code programs without needing further development software.
A assembler was soon offered on disk, and later the UCSD compiler and operating system for the Pascal language were made available.Apple support is here to help.
Learn more about popular topics and find resources that will help you with all of your Apple products. Off the shelf, Surface Go devices will run Windows 10 in "S mode", a streamlined version of Microsoft's desktop OS that only runs verified apps downloaded from the Windows Store, although.
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The Apple II (stylized as Apple ][) is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Steve Wozniak (Steve Jobs oversaw the development of the Apple II's foam-molded plastic case and Rod Holt developed the switching power supply).
It was introduced in at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first . Music. iPod touch is the perfect way to carry your music collection in your pocket. You can use it to access the iTunes Store and Apple Music.