Amazon is the titan of twenty-first century commerce. In addition to being a retailer, it is now a marketing platform, a delivery and logistics network, a payment service, a credit lender, an auction house, a major book publisher, a producer of television and films, a fashion designer, a hardware manufacturer, and a leading host of cloud server space. Although Amazon has clocked staggering growth, it generates meager profits, choosing to price below-cost and expand widely instead.
Mergers[ edit ] Media mergers are a result of one media related company buying another company for control of their resources in order to increase revenues and viewership.
As information and entertainment become a major part of our culture, media companies have been creating ways to become more efficient in reaching viewers and turning a profit.
Successful media companies usually buy out other companies to make them more powerful, profitable, and able to reach a larger viewing audience. Media mergers have become more prevalent in recent years, which has people wondering about the negative effects that could be caused by media ownership becoming more concentrated.
Such negative effects that could come into play are lack of competition and diversity as well as biased political views. As they continue to eliminate their business competition through buyouts or forcing them out because they lack the resources or finances the companies left dominate the media industry and create a media oligopoly.
Media integrity refers to the ability of a media outlet to serve the public interest and democratic processmaking it resilient to institutional corruption within the media system, economy of influence, conflicting dependence and political clientelism.
Such a situation enables excessive instrumentalisation of the media for particular political interests, which is subversive for the democratic role of the media.
Elimination of net neutrality[ edit ] Net neutrality is also at stake when media mergers occur. Net neutrality involves a lack of restrictions on content on the internet, however, with big businesses supporting campaigns financially they tend to have influence over political issues, which can translate into their mediums.
These big businesses that also have control over internet usage or the airwaves could possibly make the content available biased from their political stand point or they could restrict usage for conflicting political views, therefore eliminating net neutrality.
Commercially driven, ultra-powerful mass market media is primarily loyal to sponsors, i. Only a few companies representing the interests of a minority elite control the public airwaves. Healthy, market-based competition is absent, leading to slower innovation and increased prices. Diversity of viewpoints[ edit ] It is important to elaborate upon the issue of media consolidation and its effect upon the diversity of information reaching a particular market.
Critics of consolidation raise the issue of whether monopolistic or oligopolistic control of a local media market can be fully accountable and dependable in serving the public interest.
Freedom of the press and editorial independence[ edit ] On the local end, reporters have often seen their stories refused or edited beyond recognition. An example would be the repeated refusal of networks to air "ads" from anti-war advocates to liberal groups like MoveOn.
Journalists and their reports may be directly sponsored by parties who are the subject of their journalism leading to reports which actually favor the sponsor, have that appearance, or are simply a repetition of the sponsors' opinion.
Concern among academia rests in the notion that the purpose of the First Amendment to the US constitution was to encourage a free press as political agitator evidenced by the famous quote from US President Thomas Jefferson"The only security of all is in a free press.
The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed. The agitation it produces must be submitted to.Microeconomics.
Table of Contents. Topic pack - Microeconomics - introduction ; Monopoly and oligopoly - introduction. Concentrated markets, ones where there are only a limited number of suppliers, behave differently to competitive markets.
As we shall see, this is not always the case.
They try to regulate, or control these industries. A COMPETITION INDEX FOR DIFFERENTIATED PRODUCTS OLIGOPOLY WITH AN APPLICATION TO HOSPITAL MARKETS Initial studies of markets were case studies where We contribute to this literature by developing a competition index for diﬁerentiated oligopoly markets that is easy to calculate and grounded in theory.
The index alone can be calculated and. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Investment in Oligopoly under Uncertainty: The Accordion Effect | This paper studies investments in new markets where more than two (anticipated) identical. Case Study on the Oligopoly Market in the Beverage Industry Question One In oligopoly market, the involved companies usually make decisions based on the effect it will have on the other.
Many studies have been conducted since s by the company on the rivalry between Pepsi and Coke and the preference of the consumers to either product. This paper is a survey of applied work with auction data. First, we summarize the pre-game theoretic competitive bidding literature based on decision theory and the associated empirical work, centered essentially around the winner's curse debate.
Case Studies; Case Studies.
Therefore, on of the barriers to entry in the operating system market is the omnipresence of the competitors - in this case just one. The problem is that most of the applications and programs are being built for Windows environment. Michael Porter preferred airlines). This market operates in an oligopoly with.