Paradoxically this building, constructed between and BC, did not begin to be called the Parthenon until a century later, [ 93 ] and it was never called that officially. More that that, they emphasized the close relationship of Athena as a war goddess to her father Zeus.
But it also traces the study of aspects of biodiversity back as far as Aristotle. To some extent, biodiversity merely offers a new, emotive, term for some older ideas and programs.
On the one hand, workers taking advantage of the acknowledged importance of the term have expanded its meaning to capture concerns at a fine scale, such as that focussing on a favourite single species. In fact, Norton claims that any increase in our understanding of biodiversity will make it less likely that there will be a single objective measure.
This perspective is in accord with recognition of functional-compositional perspectives on biodiversity. One cannot aggregate all these different versions of biodiversity. They argue that biodiversity conservation is rooted primarily in ethics and we must not continue to back away from values and advocacy.
The idea that the choice of a measure of biodiversity depends on values finds support in Sarkar He argues that biodiversity operationally amounts to whatever is the valued target of conservation priority setting for different localities.
Wilson describes this change in perspective as a realization that biological diversity is disappearing and, unlike other threatened things, is irreversible. Ehrenfeld similarly reinforces this idea of the value of diversity in the aggregate. He argues that diversity previously was never regarded in itself to be in danger, but that biodiversity now is recognised as endangered in its own right.
Takacs reviews cases where the definition of biodiversity is wrapped up in the idea of strategies needed to preserve variation. In accord with this perspective is a shift to a focus on valuing ecosystem processes. This focus arguably will ensure maintenance and ongoing evolution of these systems, and therefore all of biodiversity.
Holistic perspectives on biodiversity have emerged also through another important focus.
Biodiversity is seen by many as a symbol for our lack of knowledge about the components of life's variation, and their importance to humankind see Takacs These arguments suggest that core biodiversity values might be based more on what we do not know than what we do know.
Biodiversity can be viewed as primarily capturing the two-fold challenge of unknown variety, having unknown value. A species, or other element of biodiversity, has option value when its continued existence retains the possibility of future uses and benefits. Option value corresponds not just to unknown future values of known species, but also to the unknown values of unknown species or other components of variation.
Estimating and quantifying the largely unknown variation that makes up biodiversity is one and the same as quantifying corresponding option values of biodiversity. According to this emphasis, a basic definition of biodiversity might be expanded as: These possibilities are discussed further in the section on Integrating Process and Elements Perspectives.
Given that holistic approaches may integrate functional and compositional aspects, the following sections address these different biodiversity perspectives. A later section, Alternatives to Unit-speciespresents attempts to address some weaknesses of this initial approach.
Commodity value and other direct use values have intuitive appeal because they reflect known values. But a key problem is that species need to be preserved for reasons other than any known value as resources for human use Sober Callicott discusses philosophical arguments regarding non-utilitarian value and concludes that there is no easy argument to be made except a moral one.
A philosophical issue is whether such species values depend on a human-centered perspective. Norton sees all species as collectively embraced by an environmental ethic that is anthropocentric.
Preferences-based approaches to valuation can provide economic dollar estimates of value. This valuation process may include methods for assessing and quantifying option values.European History/Print version.
From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Peasants and artisans now had more luxuries and a better diet, and production shifted from manufacturing for a mass market to a small luxury market.
anti-nobility. He famously stated, "The state should provide the greatest good for the greatest number." He.
The 10 best reasons to move to Sweden. These are people who had lived all over the world and considered Sweden the worst transfer of all and even rated third world countries a better quality of life than Sweden. It was the worst time of my life. I would NEVER go back.
So its not an equal opportunity country.
Everyone Is a Tomato: Turns out that, instead of being human Parody Sues, they're all demons!
|Is the U.S. an Empire? | History News Network||This book falls under the latter.|
By shifting production in one country to production of the good that exhibits economies of scale and shifting production toward the other good in the other country, it is possible to raise total output in the world with the same total resources.
When they have a true sense of "ownership" or connection to the places they frequent, the community becomes a better place to live, work, and visit. The residents' feelings of respect and responsibility for the place bonds them to that place and to each other.