Her father, who possessed a master's degree in history, worked at a manufacturing firm in Cincinnati and her mother, who was trained as a nurse, was a homemaker. Both her parents were graduates of Dickinson College who placed "high value on a good liberal arts education" and expected their children to have excellent academic achievements. Salter was a precocious child who thirsted for knowledge. She began reading by the age of three, and the family would once a week visit the local library where her mother would select appropriate books for her level.
Saul McLeodpublished Mary Ainsworth carried out most of her research in the USA, but child rearing practices vary considerably from place to place in terms of environment, traditions and beliefs about children.
Two Main Types of Cultures Individualist cultures value independence with each working to their own individual goals e.
Collectivist cultures value cooperation with each working towards the family or group goals e. Japan and Israel Eastern Cultures. To investigate if attachment styles secure and insecure are universal the same across cultures, or culturally specific vary considerably from place to place, due to traditions, the social environment, or beliefs about children.
Data from 32 studies in 8 different countries was analyzed.
All the 32 studies used the strange situation procedure to study attachment. Using a meta analysis statistical technique they calculated the average percentage for the different attachment styles e.
Findings It was found that secure attachment was the most common type of attachment in all cultures. The lowest percentage of secure attachments was shown in China, and the highest in Great Britain.
Results showed that individualistic countries that support independence such as Germany had high levels of anxious avoidant, whereas countries that are more culturally close collectivistsuch as Japan, had quite high levels of ambivalent resistant. Conclusion The overall consistency in secure attachment types leads to the conclusion that there may be universal innate characteristics that underpin infant and caregiver interactions.
However, the significant variations of insecure attachments demonstrate that universality is limited. Implications include the linking of the variation in attachment to child-rearing practices and environmental factors.
The German study highlights a high percentage of avoidant behavior, typical of independent children. As a result they do not show anxiety when their mother leaves.
However, they are not used to strangers so get distressed when left alone with the stranger. This explains the high percentage of resistant behavior. Evaluation The Strange Situation test assumes that behavior has the same meaning in all cultures, when in fact cultural perception and understanding of behavior differ greatly.
The Strange Situation was created and tested in the USA, which means that it may be culturally biased ethnocentricas it will reflect the norms and values of American culture.
For example, the belief that attachment is related to anxiety on separation. This may not be the case in other cultures, e. Many studies have biased samples which cannot claim to be representative of each culture, e. Also most of the studies analyzed where from Western cultures.
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg report that differences in attachment within a culture are far greater than those found between cultures.
They conclude that it is wrong to think of everyone in a culture having the same practices. Within a culture there are many sub-cultures, all with their own way of rearing children. One of the German samples was as different from another German sample as it was different from an Israeli kibbutzim or from a US sample.
One of the Japanese samples was more similar to two of the US samples than to the other Japanese sample. The Israeli city sample was more like the US than it was to the Israeli kibbutzim sample. Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation.
Maternal sensitivity and newborns' orientation responses as related to quality of attachment in northern Germany. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the strange situation.
How to reference this article: Cultural differences in attachment.Mary Ainsworth and the "Strange" situation The strange situation is a structured setting in which "a child and its mother are in a room full of toys.
After some time they are joined by someone who is a stranger to the child, then the mother leaves and returns a short while later. Mary Dinsmore Ainsworth (/ ˈ eɪ n s w ɜːr θ /; née Salter; December 1, – March 21, ) was an American-Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in the development of attachment attheheels.com designed the strange situation procedure to observe early emotional attachment between a child and its primary caregiver..
A Review of General Psychology survey ranked. Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation study procedure, conclusion (A01) and evaluation (A02) AS Psychology - Attachment (Mary Ainsworth Study) study guide by emilygra includes 30 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.
Quizlet flashcards, activities . Study 54 Chapter 9 flashcards from Michael B. on StudyBlue. Study 54 Chapter 9 flashcards from Michael B. on StudyBlue. Strange Situation. A research technique devised by Mary Ainsworth in which children go through a series of separations and reunions with their primary caregivers and observed to measure the quality of their attachment bonds.
American developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth elaborated on Bowlby's work through her own experiments, such as the Strange Situation Protocol, in which she explored anxieties and identified.
MARY AINSWORTH Strange Situation Experiment Hypothesis Amanda Heggan Melissa Davis Generalisations Limitations Results Independent Variable It is predicted that when the mother leaves the child and stranger in the room alone, the child will become distressed and cry out for it's mother and only when the infants mother returns will the .