Evolution and purpose of codes of journalism[ edit ] This section needs expansion with: You can help by adding to it.
Advanced Search Abstract Situating journalism as a cultural practice charged with delivering valid accounts of the world necessitates a theory of metajournalistic discourse to explain how meanings around journalism develop. Through metajournalistic discourse, various actors inside and outside of journalism compete to construct, reiterate, and even challenge the boundaries of acceptable journalistic practices and the limits of what can or cannot be done.
In his sociological history of the institutionalization of medicine, Paul Starr carefully contextualizes the development of medical practices within the larger professionalization project in Journalistic discourse community the medical community sought to establish itself as the rightful arbiter of health.
Doctors could not force society to recognize this role. Without the aid of the coercive tools of power, they formulated arguments supporting their cultural authority, defined by Starrp.
Truth, in its application to news, suggests an epistemological evaluation of the correspondence between an event and its account. Validity, by contrast, refers to the legitimation of patterned ways of knowing and the practices through which appropriate knowledge can be created.
Starr's work shows this process to be contingent and variable because social acceptance is a necessary condition for a profession to establish cultural authority.
In short, the discursive justification and legitimation of a profession involve both internal practitioners and external social actors. This article presents a theoretical model of the discursive processes that undergird understandings of journalism as a practice capable of supplying valid knowledge of events in the world.
Following Starr, arguments for—and against—the validity of journalistic accounts arise through both the exercise of institutionalized news practices and through explicit interpretive processes justifying or challenging these practices and their practitioners.
Formulating a theoretical perspective to examine this connection requires inquiring into how utterances about journalism shape news practices and the meanings attached to these practices.
The basic premise underlying this argument is that ways of doing journalism are inseparable from ways of understanding journalism. Treating journalism as a cultural practice charged with delivering frequent, valid accounts of happenings in the world necessitates placing journalism within a field of discourse that continually constructs meaning around journalism and its larger social place.
The case for why this discourse matters leads to the theoretical argument that metajournalistic discourse connects the creation and circulation of journalism's sociocultural meanings to the social practices surrounding news production and consumption. Starting with the premise that journalism should be understood as a cultural practice that is embedded in specific contexts, variable across time and space, and inclusive of internal and external actors, the theory of metajournalistic discourse proposes this discourse to be the site in which actors publicly engage in processes of establishing definitions, setting boundaries, and rendering judgments about journalism's legitimacy.
As both a pragmatic discourse delineating journalism as a particular cultural practice and a normative one striking a subjunctive tone about what the news should be, it is through metajournalistic discourse that the meanings of journalism are formed and transformed by actors inside and outside of journalism.
This article uses the concept of metajournalistic discourse to synthesize research analyzing how actors negotiate the cultural authority of journalists as legitimate chroniclers of events in the world.
Although a rich body of research examining the establishment of meanings around journalism has resulted in a variety of conceptual approaches covering a wide range of topics, these insights have not been integrated into a coherent theory about the cultural authority of journalism.
This article contributes to this literature by proposing a comprehensive theoretical approach that connects meanings about journalism to understandings of practice. This broader model condenses existing literature while opening up new avenues for research on metajournalistic discourse.
The sections below begin with a brief review of literature on the construction of shared understandings of journalism before developing the premises, components, and processes of a theory of metajournalistic discourse. Future analytical directions are then presented.
Conceptualizing shared understandings of journalism In its most basic sense, journalism studies explain the news story not as a mirror of an event but as a constructed account shaped by and through a complex array of professional, organizational, technological, political, economic, and cultural factors.
This perspective positions journalism as always provisional, because the acceptability of any representation as corresponding to the object being represented is contingent on wider cultural understandings of valid expressive forms that are open to contestation.Journalists learn how to accommodate the audience by relying on discourse knowledge they obtain through their educational training, professional experience and interactions with other members of the journalistic discourse community.
There’s a difference between the reading and writing done in a discourse community such as a business opposed to a job at the business, both require different ethics in the literacy world.
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Cotter concluded that despite increased opportunities for women over time, the position occupied by women relative to men. Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events.
Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists. in the journalistic discourse community. Cotter concluded that despite increased opportunities for women over time, the position occupied by women relative to men.