Petitioner was charged in a Florida state court with having broken and entered a poolroom with intent to commit a misdemeanor.
Miss Mapp and her daughter by a former marriage lived on the top floor of the two-family dwelling. Upon their arrival at that house, the officers knocked on the door and demanded entrance, but appellant, after telephoning her attorney, refused to admit them without a search warrant.
They advised their headquarters of the situation and undertook a surveillance of the house. The officers again sought entrance some three hours later when four or more additional officers arrived on the scene.
When Miss Mapp did not come to the door immediately, at least one of the several doors to the house was forcibly opened [n2] and the policemen gained admittance. It appears that Miss Mapp was halfway down the stairs from the upper floor to the front door when the officers, in this highhanded manner, broke into the hall.
She demanded to see the search warrant. A paper, claimed to be a warrant, was held up by one of the officers. She grabbed the "warrant" and placed it in her bosom. A struggle ensued in which the officers recovered the piece of paper and as a result of which they handcuffed appellant because she had been "belligerent" [p] in resisting their official rescue of the "warrant" from her person.
Running roughshod over appellant, a policeman "grabbed" her, "twisted [her] hand," and she "yelled [and] pleaded with him" because "it was hurting. They also looked into a photo album and through personal papers belonging to the appellant. The basement of the building and a trunk found therein were also searched.
The obscene materials for possession of which she was ultimately convicted were discovered in the course of that widespread search. At the trial, no search warrant was produced by the prosecution, nor was the failure to produce one explained or accounted for.
The State says that, even if the search were made without authority, or otherwise unreasonably, it is not prevented from using the unconstitutionally seized evidence at trial, citing Wolf v.
On this appeal, of which we have noted probable jurisdiction, U. United States, U. It is not the breaking of his doors, and the rummaging of his drawers, [p] that constitutes the essence of the offence; but it is the invasion of his indefeasible right of personal security, personal liberty and private property.
The Court noted that constitutional provisions for the security of person and property should be liberally construed. It is the duty of courts to be watchful for the constitutional rights of the citizen, and against any stealthy encroachments thereon.
I Annals of Cong. Concluding, the Court specifically referred to the use of the evidence there seized as "unconstitutional. Less than 30 years after Boyd, this Court, in Weeks v. The efforts of the courts and their officials to bring the guilty to punishment, praiseworthy as they are, are not to be aided by the sacrifice of those great principles established by years of endeavor and suffering which have resulted in their embodiment in the fundamental law of the land.
Finally, the Court in that case clearly stated that use of the seized evidence involved "a denial of the constitutional rights of the accused. Thus, in the yearin the Weeks case, this Court "for the first time" held that, "in a federal prosecution, the Fourth Amendment barred the use of evidence secured through an illegal search and seizure.
Colorado, supra, at This Court has ever since required of federal law officers a strict adherence to that command which this Court has held to be a clear, specific, and constitutionally required -- even if judicially implied -- deterrent safeguard without insistence upon which the Fourth Amendment would have been reduced to "a form of words.
It meant, quite simply, that "conviction by means of unlawful seizures and enforced confessions. United States, supra, atand that such evidence "shall not be used at all. United States, supra, at But the plain and unequivocal language of Weeks -- and its later paraphrase in Wolf -- to the effect that the Weeks rule is of constitutional origin, remains entirely undisturbed.Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
John McClendon Blog. For many years, payphones were an important means of communication. Every minute of use cost the caller some money. The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United attheheels.com includes a speech from the throne known as the Queen's Speech (or King's Speech).The State Opening is an elaborate ceremony showcasing British history, culture and contemporary politics to large .
TOP. Concurrence. CLARK, J., Concurring in the Result. MR. JUSTICE CLARK, concurring in the result. In Bute attheheels.comis, U.S. (), this Court found no special circumstances requiring the appointment of counsel, but stated that, if these charges had been capital charges, the court would have been required, both by the state statute and the decisions of this Court interpreting the.
Aug. Did you miss key foreign policy developments this week?Each week, DipNote recaps the latest U.S. Department of State highlights spanning a wide range of global issues, events, and initiatives. Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Reynolds v.
United States () The Court examined whether the federal anti-bigamy statute violated the First Amendment’s Free Exercise Clause, because plural marriage is part of religious practice.